Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)

 GSM (Global System for Mobile communications is the most popular mobile communication system provided by most of the cellular service providers in most countries internationally. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard.GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and regions. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system.

The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and also to network operators (who can choose equipment from any of the many vendors implementing GSM). GSM also pioneered a low-cost (to the network carrier) alternative to voice calls, the Short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"), which is now supported on other mobile standards as well.

 

Genral Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a service within the GSM network, just like the two most popular services SMS und voice connections. GPRS is used for transmitting data in the GSM network in a packet-oriented way. The connection to the remote station is not reserved and left open during the entire connect time, but is occupied only at the time of actual data transmission. For using GPRS requirements are:


Advantages of using the GPRS network that several channels are occupied at the same time for data transmission whenever data needs to be transmitted. Whenever a GPRS device is not receiving or sending data the channels are available for other services and other GPRS subscribers. By way of this dynamic allotment of resources the utilization of the existing radio infrastructure is clearly optimized. In addition, the data is also compressed by means of special coding processes (CS-1...CS-4) so as to ensure a further data rate enhancement.

The dynamic allotment of resources permits a method of billing which clears the way for many potential applications in industrial data communication. The billing is not based on connect time, but rather on the data volume transmitted. This enables applications with a permanent connection, i.e. a dedicated-line operation,... "always online". Caution is demanded, however, for monthly transmission volumes beyond 50 MB. (In case of VTS device the monthly requirement is generally around 20 MB only). In such cases GPRS may very quickly lose its cost advantage. The usual transmission volume in industrial communication, however, clearly remains below this critical volume, and is therefore ideal for using GPRS.

Connection establishment is considerably faster using GPRS rather than using conventional modem technology. Field devices are often required to allow the fastest possible readout. Here GPRS has a clear advantage over other technologies.

For choosing a provider and a GPRS tariff, the following data should be carefully compared:

Any prospective subscriber will pay attention to the basic charge and the included monthly volume in choosing a provider. But just as important is the GPRS tariff unit. Since usually no connect times are billed in the GPRS network the billing is based on the amount of bytes transmitted. The billing unit used is the block size unit. In current contracts, block sizes of one kilobyte are most frequent, whereas previously block sizes of 100 kilobytes were normal. That means for the customer that always a complete block will be billed per dial-in into the GPRS network, even if the data transmitted is actually less. With a block size of 100 Kbyte, this may easily result in a high bill

 

Geographical Information System (GIS)

GIS (Geographical Information System) is a software which consists of specially developed comprehensive and detailed maps of the city/country with latitude & longitude information of each place, street, junction and address .

GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts.

A GIS helps us to answer questions and solve problems by looking at ourdata in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared.

Any organization having new and legacy data stored in a variety of formats in many locations, need a way to integrate the data so that it can be used to analyze it as a whole and leverage it to make critical business and planning decisions.

GIS can integrate and relate any data with a spatial component, regardless of the source of the data. For example, we can combine the location of mobile workers, located in real-time by GPS devices, in relation to customers' homes, located by address and derived from our customer database. GIS maps this data, giving dispatchers a visual tool to plan the best routes for mobile staff or send the closest worker to a customer. This saves tremendous time and money.